Studies compared the students' success and source of error on exams presented as true-false, single answer multiple choice, and multiple-multiple choice exam formats. The data would suggest that, although statistical differences were not observed between the proportion of correct answers and exam format, significant differences were detected in the source of error for incorrect answers. Students answering questions as true-false were less likely to mark a true question false, and more likely to mark a false question true, than were students answering the same question in either of the multiple choice exam formats. Differences were noted for gender, academic major, and final grade.
comparative study, exam formats, true-false, multiple choice