This study examined official university records for 3,257 new, first-semester freshmen entering the College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences (AFLS) between 1998 and 2015 to determine if selected student entry characteristics were related to sophomore retention. Two-thirds (67.0%) of freshmen students returned as AFLS majors in the fall of the following academic year. Students not returning to AFLS were almost equally divided between those not returning to the university (16.2%) and those returning to the university in non-AFLS majors (16.9%). Odds ratios (ORs) indicated every one-point increase in high school grade point average (HSGPA) was associated with a 245% increase in the likelihood of returning as an AFLS major, relative to dropping out. Being a first-generation college student increased the relative odds of dropping out by 66%. Agriculture majors (as contrasted to human environmental sciences majors) were 39% less likely to transfer out of AFLS, while students eligible for Pell grants were 28% less likely to transfer. Every one-point increase in composite ACT score was associated with a 6% increase in the likelihood of transferring out of AFLS. AFLS should increase retention efforts aimed at first-generation students, students with lower HSGPAs, human environmental sciences majors, and high ACT students.